Working Principle of DC Generator

A dc generator is an electrical machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy throughout the current flows in one direction of the output terminal.

To realize the working of a dc generator, consider the following figure.

Figure 1 shows a single turn copper conductor circulating in the magnetic field. When the Cu conductor coil side AB is at position 1, the maximum flux linked with the coil (According to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction). Hence there is no induced emf as the rate of change of flux is minimum. Now successively forwarding with clockwise direction towards at position 2, the minimum flux successively linked with the Cu coil, then maximum emf is produced as the rate of change of flux is maximum.

By forwarding at position 3, the flux cut tends to a minimum by the coil. As a result, the emf production tends to zero.

When the coil side (AB) is at position 4 (Exact position of figure 1), the minimum flux linked, and the maximum rate of change of flux. But in this time the emf becomes negatively maximum by the direction. Now the coil completes the full cycle and repeats the same way.

This alternating current is made unidirectional (figure 3) by using split rings (made of segments, brushes, and mica). The split rings are so arranged that after half cycle (180 degrees) of revolution it keeps constant its positive and negative segments. The brushes are to use collecting the dc current.

Analyze Yourself

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The above figure is related to the working principle of dc generator.