There have electrical factor in power system. It includes the demand factor, load factor, diversity factor, plant capacity factor, plant use factor, etc. These type of factors generally depends on the loads in the power system. Let’s go to understand more broadly.

All Loads (light, fan, freeze, etc) do not have connected at a time at home. Load changes with time. This time can be a day, a month, a year, etc. This change of load showing in a curve is known as a load curve.

The load curve exhibits the whole character of the load during a period. Analyzing this curve, it can be balanced between consumers’ demand and power generated on the power plants.

## Different terms and electrical factor in power system

### Demand Factor in power system:

The demand factor is the ratio of the maximum demand on a power station to the connected load. Maximum demand is the highest demand for loads during a period. The maximum demand needs to determine the installed capacity of a power plant.

Connected load is the sum of the ratings of all equipment connected to the power station. The connected load must be greater than the maximum demand. Therefore, the demand factor is always less than 1.

### Load Factor in power system:

The load factor is the ratio of the average load to the maximum demand during a period. The average load is the average of different loads during a period. The load factor is always less than 1 because the average load is less than the maximum demand.

The lesser the maximum demand the higher is the load factor. If the load factor is higher on a power station, the cost per unit generated will be lesser.

### Diversity factor in power system:

The diversity factor is the ratio of the sum of individual maximum demands of the consumers to the maximum demand on the power station. The diversity factor will be greater than 1.

The higher the diversity factor the lesser is the cost of generation of power on a power plant and also the lesser is the maximum demand on the power station. Hence the capital investment on the plant is reduced and less space is required.

### Plant Capacity Factor in power system:

Plant capacity factor is the ratio of the average demand for the plant capacity.

Annual plant capacity factor = (annual kWh output)/(plant capacity*8760)

A power plant should have reserve capacity fed to the additional load demand.

Plant capacity = reserve capacity + maximum demand

### Plant Use Factor in power system:

Plant use factor is the ratio of kWh generated to the product of plant capacity and the number of hours for which the plant was in operation.

- Units generated per annum = average load in kW * hours in a year

Average load = maximum demand * load factor (L.F.)

### Plant Utilization factor in power system

**Analyze Yourself**

Q1. What do you mean by Load Curve? |

Q2. What is plant use factor and plant capacity factor in the power system? |

Q3. Write down the formulae 1. Demand factor 2. Load factor and 3. Diversity factor 4. Utilization factor. |

Q4. Why should a high diversity factor be a desirable feature of a power system? [BEPZA-16] |